The Information Technology Management Reform Act (ITMRA) and the Federal Acquisition Reform Act (FARA) were signed into law as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 and were subsequently designated the Clinger Cohen Act of 1996. This was the first time in law that agency CIO positions were established with designated roles and responsibilities. Clinger Cohen also directs Federal agencies to focus more on the results achieved through IT investments and streamlined the Federal IT procurement process, detailing how agencies approach the selection and management of IT projects. (DOD. Department of Defense Chief Information Officer Desk Reference. 2006)
As part of the law, OMB is required to establish a budget process for analyzing, tracking, and evaluating, the risks and results of IT projects. This guidance has evolved and now encompasses the annual CPIC budget process. In addition, OMB was required to perform review of information resources management activities and ensure that adequate information security policies and procedures are in place across Federal agencies.